20180122

Modal 'MAY & MIGHT'



MAY and MIGHT

           
May and Might is used to say possibility. It can be true, it can be wrong:
-   A:  Where is Jane?
    B:  She may be in her office. (It is possible that she is in her office)
-   She might be in her office.    
-   She may be having lunch. (It is possible that she is having lunch)
-   She might be having lunch.
-   Ask Kevin. He may know
-   Ask Kevin. He might know.


*  The negative form of May and Might are May Not and Might Not:
-   I’m not sure if Jane is still in her office. She may not be there now.
-   I’m not sure if Jane is still in her office. She might not be there now.

*  The Past form of May and Might are May Have and Might Have:
-   Jason was not in his office when I came. He may have had lunch.
-   I met Jane in the mall but she didn’t say hello. She might not have seen me.
-   I wonder why Kevin didn’t come to the party. He may not have been invited.
-   Sarah can’t find her bag anywhere. She might have left it in the shop.

*  Sometimes Could also has the same function as May and Might:
-   Someone is knocking the door. It might be Kevin
-   Someone is knocking the door. It could be Kevin
-   A:  Where is Jane?
    B:  She may be in her office.
         She could be in her office.

Couldn’t is different from May Not and Might Not
-   No wonder Sarah didn’t say hello. She was too far away, She couldn’t have seen you.
Because the distance was too far away, She couldn’t see you.

-   I wonder why she didn’t say hello. She might not have seen me.
It was possible that she didn’t see me, but it was also possible that she saw me, she just didn’t want to say hello.
To say a possibility like this situation, we use May not/Might Not.


*  May and Might can also be used to say a possibility in the Future:
-   We haven’t decided yet where to go for holiday next month. We may go to Britain.
-   I’m not sure what car I’m going to buy. I might buy Mitsubishi.


May and Might have the same meaning and function. Except for unreal situation, we use Might:
-   She is beautiful. If I knew her better I might ask her to marry me.
-   If Sarah invited me, I might come to her party.
The real situation is Sarah didn’t invite me.


May As Well and Might As Well
May As Well and Might As Well are used to say that we better do something because there is no reason to not doing it:
-   I have a free ticket for a concert. I’m not very keen on the concert. But I may as well go to the concert. It’s a pity to waste a free ticket.
-   I’m in a café with Sarah. We have finished our drinks. It’s a nice café and we have nothing to do. So I tell her that we might as well have another drink.
-   A:  We have just missed the bus. We have to wait an hour for the next bus. What shall we do? Shall we walk?
    B:  We might as well. It’s a nice day and I don’t want to wait here for an hour.





20180121

Modal 'MAY & MIGHT' (Bahasa)



MAY and MIGHT

           
May dan Might digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kemungkinan. Mungkin benar, mungkin juga salah:
-   A:  Where is Jane?
    B:  She may be in her office. (Dia mungkin ada di kantornya)
-   She might be in her office.    
-   She may be having lunch. (Dia mungkin sedang makan siang)
-   She might be having lunch.
-   Ask Kevin. He may know (Mungkin Kevin tau)
-   Ask Kevin. He might know.


*  Bentuk negative dari May dan Might adalah May Not dan Might Not:
-   I’m not sure if Jane is still in her office. She may not be there now
-   I’m not sure if Jane is still in her office. She might not be there now

*  Bentuk lampau (Past) dari May dan Might adalah May Have dan Might Have:
-   Jason was not in his office when I came. He may have had lunch.
-   I met Jane in the mall but she didn’t say hello. She might not have seen me.
-   I wonder why Kevin didn’t come to the party. He may not have been invited.
-   Sarah can’t find her bag anywhere. She might have left it in the shop.

*  Terkadang Could juga mempunyai fungsi yang sama dengan May dan Might
-   Someone is knocking the door. It might be Kevin.
-   Someone is knocking the door. It could be Kevin.
-   A:  Where is Jane?
    B:  She may be in her office
-   She could be in her office

Couldn’t berbeda dengan May Not dan Might Not
-   No wonder Sarah didn’t say hello. She was too far away, She couldn’t have seen you.
Karena jarak yang terlalu jauh, Sarah tidak bisa melihatmu. Menggunakan Couldn’t Have.

-   I wonder why she didn’t say hello. She might not have seen me.
Mungkin dia tidak melihatku, tapi mungkin juga dia melihatku tapi memang tidak mau menyapa.
Untuk menyatakan kemungkinan seperti ini menggunakan May not/Might Not.


*  May dan Might juga bisa digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kemungkinan di masa yang akan datang (Future):
-   We haven’t decided yet where to go for holiday next month. We may go to Britain.
-   I’m not sure what car I’m going to buy. I might buy Mitsubishi.


*  May dan Might mempunyai arti dan fungsi yang sama. Kecuali untuk situasi yang tidak nyata, kita hanya menggunakan Might:
-   She is beautiful. If I knew her better I might ask her to marry me.
-   If Sarah invited me, I might come to her party.
Situasi yang sebenarnya, Sarah tidak mengundangku.


May As Well and Might As Well
May As Well and Might As Well digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa sebaiknya kita melakukan sesuatu karena tidak ada yang lebih baik untuk dilakukan dan tidak ada alas an untuk tidak melakukannya:
-   I have a free ticket for a concert. I’m not very keen on the concert. But I may as well go to the concert. It’s a pity to waste a free ticket.
-   I’m in a café with Sarah. We have finished our drinks. It’s a nice café and we have nothing to do. So I tell her that we might as well have another drink.
-   A:  We have just missed the bus. We have to wait an hour for the next bus. What shall we do? Shall we walk?
    B:  We might as well. It’s a nice day and I don’t want to wait here for an hour.



20180119

Modal 'MUST & HAVE TO'




MUST & HAVE TO

Must and Have To is used to say a must, or a necessity, or that something is important to do.

We use Must to say that according to us, something must be done or necessary to be done (Personal Feeling):
-   Sarah is really a brilliant girl. You must meet her.
-   When you come to London again, you must come and see us.
-   This restaurant has great pizza. You must try it. (According to me, you must try the pizza in this restaurant because it is delicious)


Whereas Have To is used to say that something must be done because of it’s rule, or because of certain situation that make it so:
-   Kevin cannot go to the movie with us this evening. He has to work.
-   In Indonesia children have to wear uniform when they go to school.
-   You can’t turn left here. You have to turn right. (Because the traffic sign forbids to turn left)
In a situation like this, to say  that something must be done, we use Have To


Compare the usage of MUST vs HAVE TO :
-   I must get home early this evening. I want to see football match on TV.
-   I have to get home early this evening. my sister is seriously ill.
If we are not sure which one to use, than we better use Have To


We can use Must for Present or Future but not for Past:
-   I must see my dentist now.
-   I must see my dentist tomorrow.

We can use Have to for all tenses:
-   I have to go to hospital now (Present).
-   I have to go to hospital tomorrow (Future).
-   I had to go to hospital yesterday (Past).
-   I have never had to go to hospital (Present Perfect).
-   I might have to go to hospital (Infinitive after Might).


In order to make interrogative and negative sentences which use Have To, we use auxiliary Do/Does/Did :
-   Sarah doesn’t have to work on Saturdays.
-   Andrew didn’t have to go to hospital.
-   What do I have to do to make you believe?
-   Do I have to return your book next Sunday?


Have Got To = Have To
-   I have got to submit the report tomorrow.
-   I have to submit the report tomorrow.
-   Andrew hadn’t got to go to hospital.
-   Andrew didn’t have to go to hospital.
-   When have you got to go?
-   When do you have to go?



Must Not vs Don’t Have To


Must Not is used to forbid something or to say that the best decision is not to do it:
-  Andrew is still ill. He mustn’t go to work.
-  This is a secret. I don’t want anyone to know. You mustn’t tell anyone.
-  I mustn’t eat too much. I’m supposed to be on diet.

Don’t Have To is used to say that it’s not necessary to do something, but if we want to do it, it’s also ok:
-  Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he doesn’t have to go to work.
-  You can tell me your problem if you want. But you don’t have to.
-  I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to get up early

Needn’t and Don’t Need To = Don’t Have to

-   Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he doesn’t have to go to work.
-   Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he needn’t go to work.
-   Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he doesn’t need to go to work.

*  Needn’t Have + V3
Notice the example below:
Kevin was going to have a meeting with marketing division. He thought the meeting would start at 9.00 am, so he got up early and rushed to the office. But he was wrong. The meeting began at 11.00 am. So; He needn’t have rushed.

Kevin didn’t know that the meeting started at 11.00 am so he got up early and rushed to the office. So when he arrived, the meeting had not started yet. So; he Needn’t have rushed.


Compare Needn’t vs Needn’t Have:
-   That shirt isn’t dirty. You needn’t wash it. (I tell you that the shirt is not dirty, so you needn’t wash it (the shirt has not been washed yet))

-   Why did you wash that shirt? It wasn’t dirty. You needn’t have washed it.
Actually the shirt you washed was still clean. You needn’t have washed it (but you already washed it)


Compare Didn’t Need To vs Needn’t Have:
-   I didn’t need to say goodbye to her, so I just left.
-   I didn’t need to say goodbye to her. But I wanted this to be a memorable farewell, so I said goodbye nicely.
Actually that was not necessary to do and I realized that (the situation happened in the past)


-   I said goodbye to her because I was afraid it would hurt her if I left without a word. But in fact she had expected me to leave her since long time ago. So, I needn’t have said goodbye.
I did something in the past because at that time I thought that was necessary to do. But now I realize that it was not necessary.






20180118

Modal 'MUST & HAVE TO' (Bahasa)



MUST vs HAVE TO

Must dan Have To digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu keharusan atau sesuatu yang penting untuk dilakukan.

Kita menggunakan Must untuk menyatakan bahwa sesuatu itu harus atau penting untuk dilakukan menurut kita (Personal Feeling):
-   Sarah is really a brilliant girl. You must meet her.
-   When you come to London again, you must come and see us.
-   This restaurant has great pizza. You must try it. (Menurut saya, kamu harus coba makan pizza di restoran ini karena rasanya yang enak)


Sedangkan Have To digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa sesuatu harus dilakukan karena sudah merupakan peraturan atau karena adanya situasi tertentu yang menyebabkannya:
-   Kevin cannot go to the movie with us this evening. He has to work.
-   In Indonesia children have to wear uniform when they go to school.
-   You can’t turn left here. You have to turn right. (Karena rambu lalu lintasnya memang melarang belok kiri.)
Pada situasi seperti ini untuk menyatakan keharusan kita menggunakan Have To


Bandingkan penggunaan MUST vs HAVE TO :
-   I must get home early this evening. I want to see football match on TV.
-   I have to get home early this evening. my sister is seriously ill.
Jika kita ragu yang mana yang harus kita pakai, maka sebaiknya kita pakai Have To



Kita bisa menggunakan Must untuk membicarakan waktu Present ataupun Future tapi tidak bisa digunakan untuk Past:
-   I must see my dentist now.
-   I must see my dentist tomorrow.

Kita bisa menggunakan Have to untuk semua bentuk tenses:
-   I have to go to hospital now (Present).
-   I have to go to hospital tomorrow (Future).
-   I had to go to hospital yesterday (Past).
-   I have never had to go to hospital (Present Perfect).
-   I might have to go to hospital (Infinitive setelah Might).


Untuk membuat kalimat interrogative dan negative yang menggunakan Have To, kita pakai auxiliary Do/Does/Did :
-   Sarah doesn’t have to work on Saturdays.
-   Andrew didn’t have to go to hospital.
-   What do I have to do to make you believe?
-   Do I have to return your book next Sunday?


Have Got To = Have To
-   I have got to submit the report tomorrow.
-   I have to submit the report tomorrow.
-   Andrew hadn’t got to go to hospital.
-   Andrew didn’t have to go to hospital.
-   When have you got to go?
-   When do you have to go?



Must Not vs Don’t Have To


Must Not digunakan untuk menyatakan larangan atau untuk menyatakan bahwa keputusan yang terbaik adalah dengan tidak melakukannya
-  Andrew is still ill. He mustn’t go to work.
-  This is a secret. I don’t want anyone to know. You mustn’t tell anyone.
-  I mustn’t eat too much. I’m supposed to be on diet.

Don’t Have To digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa seseorang tidak perlu melakukan sesuatu, tapi jika ingin melakukannya juga boleh
-  Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he doesn’t have to go to work.
-  You can tell me your problem if you want. But you don’t have to.
-  I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to get up early

Needn’t and Don’t Need To = Don’t Have to

-   Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he doesn’t have to go to work.
-   Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he needn’t go to work.
-   Andrew can stay in bed tomorrow morning because he doesn’t need to go to work.

Needn’t Have + V3
Perhatikan contoh situasi berikut:
Kevin was going to have a meeting with marketing division. He thought the meeting would start at 9.00 am, so he got up early and rushed to the office. But he was wrong. The meeting began at 11.00 am. So; He needn’t have rushed.

Kevin tidak tau kalau meeting nya dimulai lebih siang, sehingga dia bangun lebih awal dan terburu-buru berangkat. Sehingga ketika sampai di tempat meeting nya masih belum dimulai. Mestinya Kevin tidak perlu terburu-buru berangkat (Needn’t have rushed).


Bandingkan antara Needn’t vs Needn’t Have:
-   That shirt isn’t dirty. You needn’t wash it. (Saya memberi tahu kalau baju tersebut tidak kotor. Jadi kamu tidak perlu mencucinya (Bajunya masih belum dicuci))

-   Why did you wash that shirt? It wasn’t dirty. You needn’t have washed it.
Sebenarnya baju yang kamu cuci tadi tidak kotor. Seharusnya kamu tidak perlu mencucinya (Tapi sudah terlanjur dicuci)



Bandingkan antara Didn’t Need To vs Needn’t Have:
-   I didn’t need to say goodbye to her, so I just left.
-   I didn’t need to say goodbye to her. But I wanted this to be a memorable farewell, so I said goodbye nicely.
Sebenarnya hal tersebut tidak penting untuk saya lakukan dan saya sudah menyadarinya pada saat itu (Kejadian sudah lampau/Past)

-   I said goodbye to her because I was afraid it would hurt her if I left without a word. But in fact she had expected me to leave her since long time ago. So, I needn’t have said goodbye.
Saya melakukan sesuatu di masa lampau (Past) karena pada saat itu saya berfikir bahwa hal tersebut memang penting/perlu untuk saya lakukan. Tetapi sekarang baru saya sadari bahwa ternyata hal tersebut sebenarnya tidak perlu saya lakukan.