20171221

Present Future Tense




WILL / SHALL / BE GOING TO


Present Future is used to say a future action (an activity that will be done in the future).
The main characteristic of Present Future is Will / Shall / Be Going To followed by Infinitive (Base form of verb).
Adverbs of time used are:

-Tomorrow,    - Tonight,    - Next Week,    - Next Year,    - This Evening,    - etc.

-     I will visit my grand mother tomorrow.
-     She is going to have birthday party next Saturday.
-     We shall cancel the meeting this afternoon.
      * Visit, Have and Cancel are Infinitive (Base form of Verb)

WILL
Will can be used for:
*    Offering to do something:
-     Your luggage looks heavy. I’ll help you with it.
-     You should go to the dentist. Don’t worry about the money, I’ll lend you some.

*    Agreeing to do something:
X:  I’ve got difficulty with the homework. Can you help me?
Y:  With pleasure. I will help you after lunch             .

X:  I need a friend to go to the party. Will you accompany me?
Y:  OK, I will pick you up at 7.00 then.

*   Promising to do something:
-     Can I borrow your dictionary? I will give it back on Thursday.
-     I won’t tell anyone what happened. (negative form of will is will not, can be shortened as won’t)

*    Asking somebody to do something 
-     Will you turn on the fan, please?
-     Will you sweep the floor?

An imperative sentence that use will always in the form of interrogative with the
structure: will + you + Infinitive



We can use will not (won’t) to say that one refuses to do something:
-     I have advised him to apology but he won’t listen.
-     Her mother asked her to take her medicine but she won’t take a single pill  



WILL vs BE GOING TO

To express a prediction we may use either will or be going to
  1. Look at the cloud. I think it will rain soon
  2. Look at the cloud. I think it is going to rain soon
  3. It’s raining now, if you don’t use an umbrella, you’ll get cold
  4. It’s raining now, if you don’t use an umbrella, you’re going to get cold


To express willingness we use will. We decide to do something at the moment we speak, we don't plan it before
-     It’s already dark. I will turn on the lamp-     X:  What if we go to the movie tonight?
      Y:  That sounds great I’ll ask Sarah to come along
In order to say that something has been planned before, we use be going to
-     John has decided to leave the school. He is going to get a job-     Sarah bought a new blazer. She is going to have a job interview next Monday
-     
I want to study English. I am going to buy a dictionary

Compare:
Sarah   :      Andrew is seriously ill. He is in hospital.
Kevin  :      Oh really? I didn’t know it. I will visit him then.

Sarah   :      Andrew is seriously ill. He is in hospital.
Kevin  :      Yes I know. I am going to visit her tomorrow.


SHALL
Shall has the same meaning as will, but not all subject can use shall. Only I and We can use shall:
-     I shall submit the worksheet as soon as possible.
-     We shall probably go to Singapore for holiday.
-     I shan’t be absent tomorrow (negative form of shall is shall not, can be shortened as shan’t)


In an interrogative sentence, shall is used to ask an opinion especially to offer something:
    Shall I close the door?
-     I’ve lost my job. What shall I do?
-     Where shall we go for our holiday?


PRESENT SIMPLE (V1)
Present simple can be used to express a future action especially to talk about a schedule or a program:
-     The film starts at 8 o’clock this evening.
-     The job fair opens at 10.00 tomorrow morning.
-     This TV program is boring. When does it finish?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (IS/AM/ARE + V ing)
Present continuous can also be used to express a future situation or action to talk about something that has been planned:
-     What are you doing tomorrow morning?
-     I’m going to the cinema with my wife.
-     Sarah is leaving at noon tomorrow.

Compare:

What time are you leaving tomorrow?
(asking about someone's plan)

What time does the train leave tomorrow?
(asking about a schedule)








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