20171219

Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Bahasa)



Have / Has + Been + V3 (Past Participle)

Present Perfect Continuous digunakan untuk mengatakan sesuatu yang dimulai pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang. Biasanya menggunakan kata keterangan waktu: All day, For…, Since…, Recently, How long:
-     How long have you been reading? (saat ditanya kamu masih sedang membaca)
-     I have been reading all day.
-     Sarah has been learning history recently.


Bandingkan Present Perfect Continuous dan Present Continuous:

Present Perfect Continuous
Present Continuous
How long have you been reading?
Are you reading now?
Sarah has been reading all day
Sarah is reading now
I have been waiting for two hours
I am waiting for someone
Penekanan pada durasi waktu (berapa lama suatu aktifitas dilakukan)
Fokus pada proses aktifitas, tidak ada durasi waktu

           
Present Perfect Continuous juga digunakan untuk suatu aktifitas atau kejadian yang baru saja berhenti tapi masih ada hubungannya dengan sekarang:
-     Her clothes are very dirty. What has she been doing?
-     It is not raining now but the ground is wet. It has been raining.
-     Jane is sweaty. She has been running. (Jane sudah tidak lagi berlari tapi masih berkeringat. Dia baru saja berlari)


Present Perfect Continuous juga bisa digunakan untuk aktifitas yang dilakukan berulang-ulang dalam periode waktu tertentu. Sama seperti Present Perfect. Penggunaan dua tenses tersebut sama benarnya:
-     I have been having three exams so far this semester.
-     I have had three exams so far this semester.
-     Sarah has been swimming since she was ten.
-     Sarah has swum since she was ten.


 Bandingkan Present Perfect Continuous dan Present Perfect:

Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect
My hands are very dirty. I’ve been repairing the motorcycle
You can use the motorcycle now. I’ve repaired it
Jane has been learning English recently
Jane has learned English. She can speak English fluently
Andrew has been reading novel for the last two hours. He hasn’t had breakfast yet
Andrew has read the novel and he loves the story
Yang menjadi fokus adalah aktifitasnya, tidak penting apakah sudah selesai atau belum. Dalam contoh di atas aktifitasnya masih belum selesai
Yang menjadi fokus adalah bahwa aktifitasnya sudah selesai dilakasanakan dan ada hasilnya

  
How long have you been reading that novel?
How many pages of that novel have you read?
Jane is still talking on the phone. She has been phoning all day
Jane has phoned me four times today
Andrew has been writing since the last half hour
Andrew has written twelve pages
Present Perfect Continuous digunakan untuk menanyakan ‘How Long’ atau menyatakan berapa lama terjadinya suatu aktifitas yang masih terjadi
Present Perfect digunakan untuk menanyakan ‘How Much, How Many, How Many Times’ atau menyatakan berapa banyak sesuatu sudah dilakukan




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