20171219

Present Perfect Continuous Tense



Have / Has + Been + V3 (Past Participle)

Present Perfect Continuous is used to say that something started at a certain time in the past and still happening until now. It usually uses adverb of time:  All day, For…, Since…, Recently, How long:
-     How long have you been reading? (At the time you are being asked, you are in the middle of your reading)
-     I have been reading all day.
-     Sarah has been learning history recently.


Compare Present Perfect Continuous and Present Continuous:

Present Perfect Continuous
Present Continuous
How long have you been reading?
Are you reading now?
Sarah has been reading all day
Sarah is reading now
have been waiting for two hours
am waiting for someone
The sentences above emphasize on the time duration (how long an activity is done)
The sentences above focus on the process of the activity, not the time duration.

           
Present Perfect Continuous also used for an activity or a situation that has just stopped but still related to the time of speaking:
-     Her clothes are very dirty. What has she been doing?
-     It is not raining now but the ground is wet. It has been raining.
-     Jane is sweaty. She has been running. (Jane has finished running but she is still sweaty. She has been running)


Present Perfect Continuous also used for an activity that is done repeatedly at a certain period of time. Just the same as Present Perfect. We can use both tenses:
-     I have been having three exams so far this semester.
-     I have had three exams so far this semester.
-     Sarah has been swimming since she was ten.
-     Sarah has swum since she was ten.


 Compare Present Perfect Continuous and Present Perfect:

Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect
My hands are very dirty. I’ve been repairing the motorcycle
You can use the motorcycle now. I’ve repaired it
Jane has been learning English recently
Jane has learned English. She can speak English fluently
Andrew has been reading novel for the last two hours. He hasn’t had breakfast yet
Andrew has read the novel and he loves the story
The sentences above focus on the activity, It doesn't matter if the activity has been done completely or not. In the above examples, the activities are not finished yet.
The sentences above try to tell us that the activities are completely done, and there are results from the activities.

 
 
How long have you been reading that novel?
How many pages of that novel have you read?
Jane is still talking on the phone. She has been phoning all day
Jane has phoned me four times today
Andrew has been writing since the last half hour
Andrew has written twelve pages
Present Perfect Continuous used to ask ‘How Long’ or to say how long a situation has been happening
Present Perfect used to ask 'How Much, How Many, How Many Times’ 





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