Present Perfect Tense

Have / Has + V3

They / We / I / You
He / She / It

We use Present Perfect if the event is connected with the time of speaking. Activity that is done in the past having an effect until now. Mostly the time of event doesn't become the main attention, so the time is not stated:
-     Brian is looking for his pen. He lost it and he still can’t find it. He has lost his pen.
-     They told me their names but I’ve forgotten it.
-     Sarah is not here. She has gone out.

are Verb 3 (Past Participle)

In order to say the time of event/situation started, we use SINCE or FOR. Notice the use of Since and For:
-     Andrew has read magazine since two hours ago.
-     Andrew has read magazine for two hours.

Present Perfect also used to give information for something that just happend:
-     Jane can’t go to work. She has burnt her hand.
-     There are a lot of people in the street. There has been an accident.
-     My neighbor and his wife have started a new business.

In order to say that something is ever or never happen, we also use Present Perfect:
-     Have you ever been to Paris?
-     I have never eaten a banana split.
-     He has never spoken to me.

Present Perfect also used to say that something or an activity happened repeatedly in the past and still happening until now.:
-     I have had three exams so far this semester.
-     Sarah has sent six messages for the last two hours.
-     Jane and I have gone to New York many times.

This semester, For the last two hours, Recently, In the last few days, Since this morning, For a long time, So far etc. are examples for adverb of time that we can use

We can use Present Perfect with Just, Already and Yet:

*   Just 
-     Andrew    :    Where is Jane?
      Sarah        :    She has just left
-     You look tired. Have you just arrived?

*   Already = To show that something happens sooner that expected
-     Andrew    :    Don’t forget to finish your homework
      Sarah        :    I’ve already finished it
-     I was going to tell Andrew about the accident but he’s already known. 

*   Yet = Until now (show an expectation for something to happen; only used for interrogative and negative sentence):
-     Has she replied the message yet?
-     I need to buy some sugar now but it hasn’t stopped raining yet (I hope that the rain stops)

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