20180112

Modal 'COULD' (Bahasa)



COULD

Could adalah bentuk lampau (Past) dari Can.
Could digunakan dengan nonprogressive verb (See/Hear/Smell/Taste/Feel/Remember/Understand):
-     When Sarah came into the classroom, we could smell her perfume.
-     He told me his name only once but I could remember it.
Came dan Told adalah V2 menunjukkan masa lampau (past).
Smell dan Remember adalah nonprogressive verb.


Could digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa seseorang memiliki suatu kemampuan/kebisaan di masa lalu (Past) atau memiliki izin/diperbolehkan untuk melakukan sesuatu:
-     Kevin could speak three foreign languages.
-     My grandma could cook Chinese food.
-     I already talked to miss Jane. We could submit the paper a bit late.
-     My manager is a nice person. I could do my job in my own way.
Is menunjukkan waktu present
Could menyatakan bahwa saya diperbolehkan untuk melakukan pekerjaan sesuai dengan cara saya sendiri.


Kita menggunakan Could untuk menyatakan kemampuan secara umum (ability in general). Jika kita membicarakan tentang sesuatu yang terjadi pada situasi tertentu di masa lampau, kita menggunakan Be Able To bentuk past (Was/Were Able To) atau Managed To:
-     The exam was very difficult but I was able to pass it.
-     The exam was very difficult but I managed to pass it.
-     I didn’t want to go to the movie with them at first but they were able to persuade me.
-     I didn’t want to go to the movie with them at first but they managed to persuade me.

Bandingkan perbedaan penggunaan Could vs Be Going To bentuk Past:
-     Kevin was a great swimmer. He could swim for one hour without a break.
Could menyatakan kemampuan secara umum (ability in general) yang dimiliki Kevin di masa lampau (Past).

 -     Kevin and I had swimming competition yesterday. He beat me easily. He was able to swim for one hour without a break.  Or   He managed to swim for one hour without a break.
Be Able To dan Managed To menyatakan kemampuan melakukan sesuatu pada situasi tertentu (Pada saat melakukan kompetisi renang).



Bentuk negative dari Could adalah Could not bisa disingkat Couldn’t. Boleh digunakan untuk segala situasi:
-     Kevin couldn’t swim.
-     They asked me to go to the movie with them but no matter how hard they tried, they couldn’t persuade me.


Could bisa juga digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang aktifitas yang bisa dilakukan di masa sekarang (Present) atau masa yang akan datang (Future) khususnya untuk memberikan saran (Suggestion). Bisa juga menggunakan Can. Can lebih yakin/pasti daripada Could:
-     Andrew :          What shall we do this evening?
      Jason     :          We could play online games  or   We can play online games.
-     When you go to Amsterdam for holiday next month, you could stay at my house  or  You can stay at my house.
This Evening dan Next Month pada dua contoh di atas adalah kata keterangan waktu (Adverb of Time) yang menunjukkan waktu akan datang (Future).
Boleh menggunakan Can ataupun Could.


Jika kita tidak benar-benar bermaksud untuk melakukan apa yang kita katakan, maka kita harus menggunakan Could.
-     I really like the foods in this restaurant. I could eat ten plates.
-     She makes me really angry. I could kill her. (Hanya mengungkapkan kemarahan. Tidak benar-benar ingin membunuh).



Could juga digunakan untuk mengatakan suatu kemungkinan yang bisa terjadi di masa sekarang (Present) atau di masa yang akan datang (Future):
-     Someone is knocking the door. It could be Kevin.
-     Jason doesn’t tell me when he will come to visit me. He could come at anytime.
Untuk situasi seperti contoh di atas, tidak boleh menggunakan Can, tapi boleh menggunakan Might.

-     Someone is knocking the door. It might be Kevin.
-     Jason doesn’t tell me when he will come to visit me. He might come at anytime.

Untuk mengatakan suatu kemungkinan yang bisa terjadi di masa lalu (Past) kita menggunakan:
COULD HAVE + V3

Perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan Could untuk Present vs Could untuk Past:
-     Someone is knocking the door. It could be Kevin.
-     Someone was knocking the door but I was too sleepy to open it. It could have been Kevin.
Tobe IS di kalimat pertama menunjukkan waktu present.
Tobe WAS di kalimat ke dua menunjukkan waktu Past.


Seringkali Could Have + V3 digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin bisa terjadi di masa lampau (Past) tetapi tidak terjadi:
-     Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You could have stayed with me.
-     I met Sarah last night but she didn’t say anything. She could have told what happened.

Saat saya ketemu Sarah tadi malam, bisa saja Sarah menceritakan apa yang telah terjadi. Tapi dia tidak bercerita apapun.

Could bisa juga berarti Would Be Able To:
-     I could help you if you told me the truth.
-     I would be able to help you if you told me the truth.
-     I could have helped you if you had told me the truth.
-     I would have been able to help you if you had told me the truth.





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